Difference between revisions of "Ancestors of the Wampanoag"

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[[Category: Prehistory in and around the Jones River]]
 
[[Category: Prehistory in and around the Jones River]]
  
Paleo Period (13,000-10,000 years ago):
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=Paleo Period (13,000-10,000 years ago)=
  
 
Scholars believe that people began living in southeastern Massachusetts up to 13,000 years ago, after the retreat of the Wisconsin ice sheet that had covered all of Massachusetts. Although no archaeological evidence has been found in Kingston that can be identified from this period, there have been findings that date to the Paleo Period in places as close as Marshfield and along Plymouth's Eel River. We know that the people whom we've found evidence of living near Kingston traveled often, following migratory herds of mammoths, mastodons, and giant beavers, along with other megafauna that the Paleo people (sometimes known by archaeologists as the Clovis people) hunted. Therefore, it's likely the Clovis people would have ventured through Kingston during this period. Population densities from this period have been estimated at 5-12 people per 100 square kilometers. There may have been no more than a few hundred people living in all of New England during this time.  
 
Scholars believe that people began living in southeastern Massachusetts up to 13,000 years ago, after the retreat of the Wisconsin ice sheet that had covered all of Massachusetts. Although no archaeological evidence has been found in Kingston that can be identified from this period, there have been findings that date to the Paleo Period in places as close as Marshfield and along Plymouth's Eel River. We know that the people whom we've found evidence of living near Kingston traveled often, following migratory herds of mammoths, mastodons, and giant beavers, along with other megafauna that the Paleo people (sometimes known by archaeologists as the Clovis people) hunted. Therefore, it's likely the Clovis people would have ventured through Kingston during this period. Population densities from this period have been estimated at 5-12 people per 100 square kilometers. There may have been no more than a few hundred people living in all of New England during this time.  
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Early Archaic Period (10,000-8,000 years ago):
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=Early Archaic Period (10,000-8,000 years ago)=
  
 
There is one site with Early Archaic components that has been identified in Kingston, although little is known about this period of time in general for the southeastern MA region. We do see archaeological evidence that the people living here became more "settled," as the lithics tend to be made of more local volcanics like rhyolites and quartz for stone tools. This makes sense given the fact that the extinct megafauna whom the prior society had relied upon were now replaced dietarily by less migratory game such as caribou, rabbits, etc. In general, there is evidence that the people living here changed the type of spear heads they threw to better suit these new, swifter food sources. Blades were less wide, for example, than typical Clovis points, and the invention of the atl-atl--a device from which to launch spears and act as a sort of third joint mechanism--increased the distance, speed, and accuracy of these projectile points. Atl-atls have been found as near as Carver.  
 
There is one site with Early Archaic components that has been identified in Kingston, although little is known about this period of time in general for the southeastern MA region. We do see archaeological evidence that the people living here became more "settled," as the lithics tend to be made of more local volcanics like rhyolites and quartz for stone tools. This makes sense given the fact that the extinct megafauna whom the prior society had relied upon were now replaced dietarily by less migratory game such as caribou, rabbits, etc. In general, there is evidence that the people living here changed the type of spear heads they threw to better suit these new, swifter food sources. Blades were less wide, for example, than typical Clovis points, and the invention of the atl-atl--a device from which to launch spears and act as a sort of third joint mechanism--increased the distance, speed, and accuracy of these projectile points. Atl-atls have been found as near as Carver.  
  
  
Middle Archaic Period (8,000-6,000 years ago):
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=Middle Archaic Period (8,000-6,000 years ago)=
  
 
The people living in Kingston during this time began to utilize riverine and estuarine resources more extensively. Around this time, sea level rise slowed enough for shellfish beds to form in the Jones River, and the people of the Middle Archaic began introducing oysters, mussels, clams, etc. into their diet.  
 
The people living in Kingston during this time began to utilize riverine and estuarine resources more extensively. Around this time, sea level rise slowed enough for shellfish beds to form in the Jones River, and the people of the Middle Archaic began introducing oysters, mussels, clams, etc. into their diet.  
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Late Archaic Period (6,000-3,000 years ago):
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=Late Archaic Period (6,000-3,000 years ago)=
  
 
By this time, Native Americans began utilizing the rivers even more extensively to take advantage of the growing anadramous fish runs. The Late Archaic people began using strategically-placed fish weirs at this time. People in Kingston also began using bowls made of soapstone during this period. The soapstone bowls could allow the Native Americans to cook directly over fires, a technological advancement in cooking that allowed for greater possibilities, and led eventually to the widespread use of pottery in southern New England. The people living here during this time also may have begun horticulture of squash, beans, and sunflower (there is much debate on when corn was first introduced).  
 
By this time, Native Americans began utilizing the rivers even more extensively to take advantage of the growing anadramous fish runs. The Late Archaic people began using strategically-placed fish weirs at this time. People in Kingston also began using bowls made of soapstone during this period. The soapstone bowls could allow the Native Americans to cook directly over fires, a technological advancement in cooking that allowed for greater possibilities, and led eventually to the widespread use of pottery in southern New England. The people living here during this time also may have begun horticulture of squash, beans, and sunflower (there is much debate on when corn was first introduced).  
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Early Woodland Period (3,000-2,000 years ago):
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=Early Woodland Period (3,000-2,000 years ago)=
  
 
This short period is marked by a dramatic population collapse around 800 AD. This may have been due to nut-bearing trees, already beginning to decline, being then hit by plant disease and environmental change such as a lowering of water tables. Fortunately, the estaurine resources would have been unscathed by such changes.  
 
This short period is marked by a dramatic population collapse around 800 AD. This may have been due to nut-bearing trees, already beginning to decline, being then hit by plant disease and environmental change such as a lowering of water tables. Fortunately, the estaurine resources would have been unscathed by such changes.  
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Middle Woodland Period (1,700-1,200 years ago):
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=Middle Woodland Period (1,700-1,200 years ago)=
  
 
Trade seems to have grown less long distance, given evidence left by artifacts that are less finished. There is also indication of more complex and varied burial practices.  
 
Trade seems to have grown less long distance, given evidence left by artifacts that are less finished. There is also indication of more complex and varied burial practices.  
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Late Woodland Period (1,200 years ago to 500 years ago):
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=Late Woodland Period (1,200 years ago to 500 years ago)=
  
 
This period is marked by the growing importance of horticulture and what some consider agriculture practices, just prior to European contact. There is also evidence of more extensive use of pottery.  
 
This period is marked by the growing importance of horticulture and what some consider agriculture practices, just prior to European contact. There is also evidence of more extensive use of pottery.  
  
 
There are 5 Late Woodland sites that have been identified in Kingston.
 
There are 5 Late Woodland sites that have been identified in Kingston.
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Source: Chartier, Craig S. "Analysis of the Archaeological Collections of the Kingston Public Library Local History Room: Cram and Allerton Site Collections." Plymouth Archaeological Rediscovery Project. Web.

Latest revision as of 09:45, 23 May 2020


Paleo Period (13,000-10,000 years ago)

Scholars believe that people began living in southeastern Massachusetts up to 13,000 years ago, after the retreat of the Wisconsin ice sheet that had covered all of Massachusetts. Although no archaeological evidence has been found in Kingston that can be identified from this period, there have been findings that date to the Paleo Period in places as close as Marshfield and along Plymouth's Eel River. We know that the people whom we've found evidence of living near Kingston traveled often, following migratory herds of mammoths, mastodons, and giant beavers, along with other megafauna that the Paleo people (sometimes known by archaeologists as the Clovis people) hunted. Therefore, it's likely the Clovis people would have ventured through Kingston during this period. Population densities from this period have been estimated at 5-12 people per 100 square kilometers. There may have been no more than a few hundred people living in all of New England during this time.

By 8,000 B.C., the megafauna were extinct, and the Clovis who'd relied upon them for food had to change much about the way they lived, marking the end of this period of time.


Early Archaic Period (10,000-8,000 years ago)

There is one site with Early Archaic components that has been identified in Kingston, although little is known about this period of time in general for the southeastern MA region. We do see archaeological evidence that the people living here became more "settled," as the lithics tend to be made of more local volcanics like rhyolites and quartz for stone tools. This makes sense given the fact that the extinct megafauna whom the prior society had relied upon were now replaced dietarily by less migratory game such as caribou, rabbits, etc. In general, there is evidence that the people living here changed the type of spear heads they threw to better suit these new, swifter food sources. Blades were less wide, for example, than typical Clovis points, and the invention of the atl-atl--a device from which to launch spears and act as a sort of third joint mechanism--increased the distance, speed, and accuracy of these projectile points. Atl-atls have been found as near as Carver.


Middle Archaic Period (8,000-6,000 years ago)

The people living in Kingston during this time began to utilize riverine and estuarine resources more extensively. Around this time, sea level rise slowed enough for shellfish beds to form in the Jones River, and the people of the Middle Archaic began introducing oysters, mussels, clams, etc. into their diet.

By the end of this period, the caribou had migrated north because of changing temperatures and changing forest composition--the result of rising temperatures and the retreat of the glacier. There is debate over whether the people of the Middle Archaic followed the caribou away from southern New England, or stayed and adapted to the changes. More recent research, especially by Dena Dincauze and others, has demonstrated that the people from the Middle Archaic did not all leave, though some, traveling in small groups, probably did follow their traditional food source northward.

At the Kingston Public Library's Local History Room, there are two collections containing Middle Archaic elements: the Cram Collection and the Allerton Collection.


Late Archaic Period (6,000-3,000 years ago)

By this time, Native Americans began utilizing the rivers even more extensively to take advantage of the growing anadramous fish runs. The Late Archaic people began using strategically-placed fish weirs at this time. People in Kingston also began using bowls made of soapstone during this period. The soapstone bowls could allow the Native Americans to cook directly over fires, a technological advancement in cooking that allowed for greater possibilities, and led eventually to the widespread use of pottery in southern New England. The people living here during this time also may have begun horticulture of squash, beans, and sunflower (there is much debate on when corn was first introduced).

Archaeologists generally call the first type of projectile points found at this time "Small-Stemmed," presumably because these points do not have prominent stems like their predecessors. However, around 3,700 B.C. the style of points found began to change. Scholars generally theorize that a migration of peoples from New York most have occurred during this time, and that they evenutally lived alongside and then culturally merged with the Small Stemmed tradition, at least according to the dominant theory. That explains the change in arrow heads.

There are 17 Late Archaic sites identified in Kingston, and many artifacts in the two KPL collections dating from then as well.


Early Woodland Period (3,000-2,000 years ago)

This short period is marked by a dramatic population collapse around 800 AD. This may have been due to nut-bearing trees, already beginning to decline, being then hit by plant disease and environmental change such as a lowering of water tables. Fortunately, the estaurine resources would have been unscathed by such changes.

There are 5 Early Woodland sites that have been identified in Kingston.


Middle Woodland Period (1,700-1,200 years ago)

Trade seems to have grown less long distance, given evidence left by artifacts that are less finished. There is also indication of more complex and varied burial practices.

There are 3 Middle Woodland sites that have been identified in Kingston.


Late Woodland Period (1,200 years ago to 500 years ago)

This period is marked by the growing importance of horticulture and what some consider agriculture practices, just prior to European contact. There is also evidence of more extensive use of pottery.

There are 5 Late Woodland sites that have been identified in Kingston.


Source: Chartier, Craig S. "Analysis of the Archaeological Collections of the Kingston Public Library Local History Room: Cram and Allerton Site Collections." Plymouth Archaeological Rediscovery Project. Web.